Just had this happen to me and used the same bug to escape from certain death and/or save reload.
If you accept the transmission to chat with Polo to deliver Hex Cores (or I guess any transmission conversation?), you may find yourself drifting towards the anomaly as you do.
While in this conversation your ship is in an invincible state and will essentially phase through anything, if you exit the conversation you may find yourself unfortunately stuck inside something, something like the anomaly you just summoned to have a chat with.
Fortunately you can just contact polo again as if to hand in more Hex cores and use the same trick to phase back out.